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Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Phthalate Plasticizers
Phthalates, which mostly used as PVC plasticizers are estimated to be
produced over 470 million pound per year. PVC plasticizers are used in
variety of applications including wire & cable, flooring, automotive; film,
sheet, & coated fabric; sealants & mastics etc.
General structure of phthalates (di alkyl-ortho-phthalate)
Where R1 and R2 =
liner, branched,
cyclic group, or a
combination of them
Regulations on Phthalates

Due to the concerns over the toxicity and possible human health
hazardous to humans with Phthalate exposure, EPA has recently
their intention to take action on manufacture, processing,
distributing and/or usage of eight phthalates including Dibutyl Phthalate
(DBP), Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP), Butyl Benzyl Phthalate (BBP),
Di-n-Pentyl Phthalate (DnPP), Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP),
Di-n-Octyl Phthalate (DnOP), Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP), and
Diisodecyl Phthalate (DIDP).

The European Council Directive (1999/815/EC), prohibits the use of
certain Phthalates in certain types of toys.

California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) listed
Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) as a potentially carcinogenic and
reproductive hazards material.

The en acted a ban on phthalate derivates in children's toys in 1999. The
Council Directive applies to toys and childcare articles made of soft PVC.
The European Council ordered further studies focussed on the harmful
effects of phthalates.

Japan has banned the use of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in all
types of designated toys, and the use of Di-isononyl Phthalate (DINP) in
some toys that infants and toddles could put in their mouth including
pacifiers, teethers etc.

More details on DEHP regulations