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Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Additives - Plasticizers
Plasticizers are usually added to polymers to get more flexible products. Plasticization of
a resin can often be achieved in two main routes, namely internal plasticization or
external plasticization. Internal plasticization is usually done by copolymerization with
other monomers. External plasticization, the most widely used method to get flexible
PVC, is done by processing the resin with plasticizers.
There are various ways of categorizing the plasticizers used in PVC industry. Depending
on the number of repeating units in the molecule, plasticizers can be categorized into
monomeric or polymeric plasticizers, or they can be categorized by the performance, --
general purpose, strong solvating, low temperature performing, less volatile and other
Another way of categorizing the plasticizers is by the level of use, -- primary plasticizers
and secondary plasticizers--.

Monomeric Plasticizers
As shown in the Figure 1, monomeric plasticizers can be categorized in to
various groups according to the primary chemical building block group,
including phthalates, aliphatic dicarboxylic acid esters, hydrocarbons,
epoxies, phosphates and other groups.There are a broad range of
plasticizers that are made to tailor the end-use performance, process
requirements and the cost.
Phthalate based monomeric plasticizers
Phthalates, which mostly used as PVC plasticizers are estimated to be
produced over 470 million pound per year. More >>
Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid ester based monomeric
Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid ester based plasticizers are primarily
used to improve low temperature properties. More >>

Hydrocarbon based monomeric plasticizers

There are various hydrocarbon based plasticizers mainly derived from
petroleum and coal tar fractions, however, most of them are unsuitable
due to their high odor and poor clarity. More >>>
Epoxy based monomeric plasticizers

Epoxy plasticizers (epoxides) are used in almost every PVC
formulations due to their heat and light stabilizing properties. They are
usually synthesized by the epoxidation of the olefinic double bonds of
the starting material to form oxirane rings which are characteristic to
epoxides. more>>
Phosphate based monomeric plasticizers
Other monomeric plasticizers
Depending on the processing conditions and/or the expected end
use, highly specialized plasticizers are used. For example, TXIB
(2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) is a non-phthalate
plasticizer, that is usually used in plastisol applications to get
reduced viscosity. Due to the low initial viscosity and ease of
processing, TXIB has found wide variety of applications including,
nail care, plastisol, sheet vinyl flooring, toys, sporting goods, vinyl
gloves, wall coverings etc. It is a highly volatile plasticizer, thus,
offers stain resistance properties to the end product.
Citrate Plasticizers

Citrates are specialty plasticizers that offer better biodegradability and
less biochemical affects, and thus found applications in PVC blood
bags; controlled release pharmaceutical drugs, gums, products that
comes contact with food such as food wrap etc. More >>
Polymeric Plasticizers


Poly adipates
Examples of commercially available Poly adipates (Polyesters of aliphatic
dicarboxylic acids ) includes PALAMOLL® 632 and PALAMOLL® 858 by
BASF. More>>